- Asean Customs & Import Export
Located mostly in Southeast Asia with some territories in the Oceania continent across from Australia, the Republic of Indonesia shipped US$144.5 billion worth of goods around the globe in 2016. That dollar amount represents a 24% increase since 2009 when the Great Recession kicked in but down by -3.9% from 2015 to 2016.
Indonesia’s top 10 exports account for 62.3% of Indonesia’s total exports.
Based on statistics from the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook Database, Indonesia’s total Gross Domestic Product amounted to $3.257 trillion as of April 2017. Therefore, exports represent 4.4% of total Indonesian economic output.
From a continental perspective, 67.9% of Indonesian exports by value were delivered to other Asian countries while 12.7% were sold to European importers. Indonesia shipped another 12.3% worth of goods to North America with 2.9% going to customers in Africa.
Given Indonesia’s population of 258.3 million people, its total $144.5 billion in 2016 exports translates to roughly $560 for every resident in that country.
Indonesia’s unemployment rate was 5.61% as of September 2016, according to Trading Economics.
Importers and exporters may follows the following 5 steps:
Step 1: Register at RCED / appoint a registered agent
Every company or agents/ forwarders must be registered with the RCED for them to be easy dealing with the RCED.
Applicant must submit a complete application form to theCustomer Services Counter of RCED Headquarters, Jalan Menteri Besar.
Registration is free of charge.
Documents needed for registration:
A copy of the Company’s Registration Certificate.
A copy of Applicant’s Smart Identity Card.
*Individual registration is not compulsory however customers (traders) are advised to make use of the services of Customs agents (forwarders).
Step 2: Apply Permit for Controlled Items
What is meant by license or permitLicense or Permit is a verification or approval given/ issued by the relevant Government Department/ Agency responsible for the commodities before importation.
How to apply license/ permit?Written application or completed form (subject to the requirement of the Department/ Agency) must be submitted to the Department/ Agency responsible for such prohibited and controlled commodities.
Any other additional requirementThere are some prohibited or controlled commodities that require A.P (Approval permit) issued by the RCED other than license/ permit issued by the relevant Government Agency before imported or exported.
Step 3: Online Declaration
Every person arriving Negara Brunei Darussalam shall declare all goods in his possession, either on his person OR in any baggages OR in any vehicles to proper officer of Customs for inspection and clearance.
If failed to do so, such goods shall be deemed to be uncustomed goods and it is an offence under Customs Order 2006, if convicted, imprisonment OR fines can be imposed.
All imported goods should be declared to RCED through online system (eCustoms) or Brunei Darussalam National Single Window (BDNSW) except for the following goods;
☞ Passenger hand baggages or personal effect on arrival.
☞ Goods arriving by post except for dutiable goods.
Customs Declaration should give full and true account of the number of packages, case description of goods, value, weight, measure or quantity, and country of origin of the goods.
Main documents required to be listed as reference in the Customs Declaration are as follows:
Air Waybill or Bill of Lading
Step 4: Payment of Dutiable Goods
Once the customs declaration had been approved, duties and other charges can be paid at Customs Counter or via an online payment.
Step 5: Inspection and Clearance
Approved Customs Declaration may be presented to Customs Officers on duty at relevant Customs Branches (entry point), together with any other supported documents for examination/ inspection and release of goods.
A truck waits to be unloaded at Sihanoukville port in February last year. A recent study shows Cambodia has slipped to second-to-last in terms of logistical performance and efficiency out of 45 countries studied. Heng Chivoan
Cambodia’s logistics performance and supply-chain efficiency has declined despite notable rises in trade volumes with European markets, a recent study shows.
Global supply chain firm Agility released its Emerging Markets Logistics Index 2015 (EMLI) yesterday. Cambodia fell three places on the index to 44th position out of 45 countries – better than only Uganda.
EMLI rankings take into account each country’s potential economic growth, accessibility and attractiveness for foreign investment as well as a nation’s domestic and international transport infrastructure.
Of the measures, Cambodia received the lowest score of all 45 nations in market size and growth attractiveness, or the country’s economic output combined with financial stability and population size.
“[Cambodia] has seen improvements in economic conditions,” the report says. “Still, social conditions require considerable improvements.”
Despite falling on the index, Cambodia air export volumes to Europe registered 41 per cent increase in 2014, the second biggest increase after Vietnam-US trade.
“Cambodia-EU is expected to continue on an explosive growth trajectory,” the EMLI report says. “However, it is worth emphasizing that this is the smallest trade lane by tonnage in the top 25, with eleven other lanes experiencing higher growth in absolute terms.”
Cambodia’s strong trade with the European Union, however, failed to impress industry professionals.
A survey of 972 logistics professionals, also included in Agility’s January 20 report, showed the Kingdom was the eleventh least attractive market for logistics investment, up two spots compared to 2014 survey results.
One such logistics firm, which services the Cambodia to European trade line, is CMA CGM Group.
Nhiev Kol, general manager for CMA Cambodia, was unsurprised at the latest EMLI results. He said port and overland transport costs remain major risks to the supply chain and burdens for importers of Cambodian goods.
“This logistics cost adds to the cost per unit, which means we cannot compete with neighbouring Thailand and Vietnam in the export of rice, rubber, resin, cassava, etcetera,” Kol said yesterday.
Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam and the Philippines all ranked within the top 20 of the EMLI.
“CMA has no choice but impose higher tariffs to the final customer. At the end of the day, we both suffer due to the simple fact that we export less.”
CMA’s shipping volumes have grown about 5 to 10 per cent annually over the past three years, according to Kol.
John Manners-Bell, CEO of Transport Intelligence, a logistics analysis firm that compiled data for the EMLI, commended all 45 emerging markets for maintaining growth amid the slower-than-expected global recovery since the 2008 GFC.
“Despite the challenges, interest remains high in these volatile markets as indicated by increased infrastructure investment, expanding international trade and increased domestic demand,” Manners-Bell said. “Global manufacturers, retailers and their logistics service providers need to remain cognizant of the shifting dynamics if they are to exploit the significant opportunities which exist.”
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A landlocked Southeast Asian nation on the Indochinese peninsula, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic shipped US$3.2 billion worth of goods around the globe in 2016. That dollar amount results from an 85.2% gain since 2012 but a -15% decline from 2015 to 2016.
Laos’s top 10 exports accounted for over four-fifths (81%) of the overall value of its global shipments.
Based on statistics from the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook Database, Laos’s total Gross Domestic Product amounted to $40.96 billion in 2016 (on a purchasing power parity basis). Therefore, exports represent an estimated 7.7% of total Laotian economic output.
From a continental perspective, 92.7% of Laotian exports by value were delivered to other Asian countries while 5.3% were sold to European importers. Laos shipped another 1% worth of goods to Africa with 0.9% going to North America.
Given Laos’s population of 7 million people, its total $3.2 billion in 2016 exports translates to an estimated $450 for every resident in that country.
Trading Economics projected the unemployment rate for Laos as 1.5% as of June 2017.
The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Laotian global shipments during 2016. Also shown is the percentage share each export category represents in terms of overall exports from Laos.
Ores, slag, ash: US$980.9 million (31.1% of total exports)
Copper: $349.3 million (11.1%)
Electrical machinery, equipment: $341.5 million (10.8%)
Beverages, spirits, vinegar: $183.8 million (5.8%)
Fruits, nuts: $161 million (5.1%)
Gems, precious metals: $135 million (4.3%)
Inorganic chemicals: $122.6 million (3.9%)
Clothing, accessories (not knit or crochet): $106.5 million (3.4%)
Vegetables: $101.7 million (3.2%)
Rubber, rubber articles: $73.8 million (2.3%)
Unknit or non-crocheted clothing and accessories was the fastest-growing among the top 10 export categories, up by 231,454% for the 5-year period starting in 2012.
In second place for improving export sales was electrical machinery and equipment which was up by 171,510%.
The beverages, spirits and vinegar category posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 8,148% led by water and malt beer.
The leading decliner among the top 10 Laotian export categories was copper which was down by -56.4%.
The following types of Laotian product shipments represent positive net exports or a trade balance surplus. Investopedia defines net exports as the value of a country’s total exports minus the value of its total imports.
In a nutshell, net exports is the amount by which foreign spending on a home country’s goods or services exceeds or lags the home country’s spending on foreign goods or services.
Ores, slag, ash: US$975.2 million (Up by 269% since 2012)
Copper: $344.6 million (Down by -56.5%)
Fruits, nuts: $149.9 million (Up by 494.8%)
Vegetables: $95.8 million (Up by 446.3%)
Clothing, accessories (not knit or crochet): $95.2 million (Reversing a -$1.9 million deficit)
Inorganic chemicals: $80.2 million (Reversing a -$8.9 million deficit)
Gems, precious metals: $59.2 million (Down by -62.7%)
Coffee, tea, spices: $57.8 million (Down by -25.6%)
Knit or crochet clothing, accessories: $40.6 million (Reversing a -$1.6 million deficit)
Rubber, rubber articles: $36.3 million (Reversing a -$8.3 million deficit)
Laos has highly positive net exports in the international trade of copper, iron and lead ores and concentrates. In turn, these cashflows indicate Laos’s strong competitive advantages under the ores, slag and ash category.
Overall, Laos incurred a -$726.3 million trade deficit for 2016.
Below are exports from Laos that result in negative net exports or product trade balance deficits. These negative net exports reveal product categories where foreign spending on home country Laos’s goods trail Laotian importer spending on foreign products.
Mineral fuels including oil: -US$591.7 million (Up by 36.9% since 2012)
Vehicles : -$563.6 million (Up by 220.1%)
Machinery including computers: -$343.5 million (Up by 22.7%)
Electrical machinery, equipment: -$308.2 million (Up by 84.8%)
Iron, steel: -$169.5 million (Up by 113%)
Articles of iron or steel: -$151.2 million (Up by 48.7%)
Salt, sulphur, stone, cement: -$90.1 million (Up by 272.5%)
Plastics, plastic articles: -$64.9 million (Up by 98.9%)
Paper, paper items: -$62.9 million (Up by 339.8%)
Manmade staple fibers: -$44.3 million (Up by 4,723%)
Laos has highly negative net exports and therefore deep international trade deficits under the mineral fuels including oil category, especially refined petroleum oils.
PETALING JAYA: The government's decision to suspend the crude palm oil (CPO) export tax for three months is expected to benefit plantation companies with significant upstream operations and strengthen the commodity prices for the first quarter of this year, according to Felda Global Ventures Holdings Bhd (FGV).
In a statement today, FGV group president and CEO Datuk Zakaria Arshad said industry players are facing with issues of high CPO stocks level and strengthening of the ringgit that have pressured the CPO price to around RM2,500 per metric ton (MT).
"The government's action to implement the export tax suspension is timely and an effective way to reduce CPO stocks level that coincides with the increasing demand from China for the upcoming Chinese New Year.
"With this development, we expect a 30%-50% increase in the export volume to major importing countries like India, Pakistan, China and Europe," he added.
Zakaria said this shall also enable the group to increase supply to its joint-venture refinery in Pakistan at a more competitive pricing.
Based on this situation, he said the group expects average CPO prices for the first quarter 2018 to improve slightly by trading around RM2,650 per MT to RM2,750 per MT.
Commenting on the overall 2017 performance, Zakaria said FGV's core business operations had performed well with positive growth on fresh fruit bunches (FFB) production compared to 2016.
"As for 2018, we remain committed in delivering the Strategic Plan 2020 (SP20) through better core business performance, stronger financial position, enhance governance in all sectors and high performance culture that will deliver sustainable value to our shareholders," he added
Goods are exported from Myanmar when they leave Myanmar’s customs territory. Different rules apply to exports depending on whether they are commercial or non-commercial in nature. The logistics, laws and regulations governing exports are complex and most exporters use professional experts, known as freight forwarders and customs brokers, to assist them in planning and carrying out export transactions.
Exports from Myanmar are controlled by the Customs Department of the Ministry of Planning and Finance (“Customs”). Customs is responsible for assessing and collecting applicable taxes on exports and carrying out other regulatory and law enforcement responsibilities relating to exports.
Registration of a Business
Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Requirements
Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Requirements
Customs Declaration and Required Accompanying Documents
Payment of Customs Duties and Taxes
Customs Inspection of Exports
Special Econonomic Zones (SEZs)
Spotlight on the Garment Industry
Registration of a Business
In order to export goods from Myanmar, a business must first register as a company authorized to engage in international trade. For details about registering a business, click here.
Myanmar prohibits the exportation of certain goods. For details about prohibited goods, click here.
Although almost all goods require an export license to export, the main agricultural export products and cut-make-packaging (CMP) products do not require export licenses. For details about export licenses, click here.
Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Requirements
If the goods you intend to export are subject to sanitary and phytosanitary measures you will have to comply with the special regulations relating to those products. For details about SPS requirements, click here.
Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Requirements
For certain types of products, it may be necessary to obtain a permit that certifies that these products conform to certain technical standards. For details about TBT requirements, click here.
Customs Declaration and Required Accompanying Documents
In order to clear Customs exports must be accompanied by a customs declaration and required accompanying documents. For details about customs declarations, click here.
Once a declaration has been submitted and accepted by Customs, Customs will require the payment of duties on specific export products: For details about about payment of export taxes, click here.
Customs Inspection of Exports
Export inspections are conducted by Customs. These are designed to avoid disputes between exporters and importers concerning the quality and quantity of the goods and to limit exports of prohibited products. For details inspection of exports, click here.
Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
Special economic zones, sometimes called free zones or export processing zones, are areas that are geographically within a nation but are outside a nation’s customs territory for the purpose of the collection of customs duties and other indirect taxes (such as excise and sales taxes). For details about SEZs, click here.
Spotlight on the Garment Industry
Currently almost all garment production in Myanmar is done under the Cut, Make and Package(CMP) process. For details about garments and the CMT process, click here.
MANILA - The Philippines moved up a notch in the World Economic Forum's annual competitiveness ranking, with red tape, infrastructure and taxes among top drawbacks for investors.
The Philippines ranked 56th out of 137 economies in the 2017 to 2018 Global Competitiveness Index, from 57th out of 138 in the 2016 to 2017 ranking, Geneva-based WEF said in a statement.
Switzerland remained on top of the list, followed by the US, Singapore, Netherlands, Germany, Hong Kong, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Japan and Finland.
Brunei and Vietnam overtook the Philippines from last year's ranking, making it the 7th most competitive economy in Southeast Asia. Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand were behind regional leader Singapore.
The WEF said the "most problematic" concern for the Philippines was an inefficient bureaucracy followed by inadequate infrastructure, corruption, tax regulations, tax rates and political instability.
President Rodrigo Duterte, who assumed office last year, promised to cut red tape, build P8 trillion in new infrastructure and reform the tax system while cracking down on crime.
The WEF said the world economy was "in much better shape" since the global crisis 10 years ago, citing "slow yet steady" growth that could hit 3.5 percent this year.
"However, we are living in a time of unprecedented change and uncertainty," WEF said, citing the need for world leaders to rethink their policies as technology advances.
"Continued growth is far from guaranteed," it said.
SINGAPORE - Powered by manufacturing, the Singapore economy expanded by 4.6 per cent in the third quarter, the highest growth in more than three years and much better than forecast.
Analysts polled by Bloomberg had tipped growth of 3.8 per cent in the three months to September, after the economy grew by a stronger-than-expected 2.9 per cent in the second quarter as exports and manufacturing rebounded.
The last time the economy performed so well was in the first quarter of 2014, when year-on-year growth came in at 4.9 per cent, the same as the previous quarter.
The manufacturing sector continued its strong performance, growing by 15.5 per cent on a year-on-year basis in the third quarter, faster than the 8.2 per cent growth in the previous quarter, according to advance estimates from the Ministry of Trade & Industry on Friday (Oct 13).
Growth was driven by the electronics, biomedical manufacturing and precision engineering segments. On a quarter-on-quarter basis, manufacturing grew at a faster pace of 23.1 per cent, compared to the 3.2 per cent growth in the second quarter.
The services producing industries grew by 2.6 per cent, similar to the 2.5 per cent growth in the second quarter, with growth largely coming from the finance & insurance, wholesale & retail trade and transportation & storage segments. Quarter-on-quarter, the services sector expanded by 1.5 per cent, moderating from the 3.3 per cent growth in the previous quarter.
The construction sector continued to suffer, contracting by 6.3 per cent, extending the 6.8 per cent decline in the previous quarter. The sector was weighed down mainly by continued weakness in private sector construction activities. Quarter-on-quarter, construction contracted by 9.2 per cent, a reversal from the 2.4 per cent growth in the second quarter.
Quarter-on-quarter, the economy expanded by 6.3 per cent, a big improvement from the 2.4 per cent growth in the second quarter.
The Government in August narrowed upwards its forecast for economic growth this year to 2 per cent to 3 per cent, from an earlier estimate of 1 per cent to 3 per cent. Growth came in at 2.7 per cent in the first quarter.
For the full-year, private sector economists polled by Singapore's central bank earlier this year said they expect growth to come in at at 2.5 per cent.
At the same time on Friday morning, the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) in its semi-annual monetary policy decision kept its exchange-rate based policy steady as expected by most analysts even as growth surged to a three-year high.
The Singdollar policy band is now on a path of zero appreciation against the currencies of key trading partners - a "neutral" policy stance put in place in April last year amid slow growth and low inflation.
Thailand shipped US$213.6 billion worth of goods around the globe in 2016, up by 40.1% since 2009 when the Great Recession kicked in and up by 1.3% from 2015 to 2016.
Thailand’s top 10 exports accounted for almost three-quarters (72%) of the overall value of its global shipments.
Based on statistics from the Central Intelligence Agency’s World Factbook, Thailand’s total Gross Domestic Product amounted to $1.161 trillion in 2016.
Therefore, exports accounted for about 18.4% of total Thai economic output.
From a continental perspective, 62.6% of Thai exports by value are delivered to other Asian countries while 13.4% are sold to North American importers. Thailand ships another 13% to Europe with just 2.9% going to Africa.
Given Thailand’s population of about 68.2 million people, its total $213.6 billion in 2016 exports translates to roughly $3,100 for every resident in that country.
Thailand’s unemployment rate was 0.8% as of December 2016 according to Trading Economics, up from 0.65% one year earlier.
Thailand’s Top 10 Exports
Vietnamese companies are struggling to sell their products to ASEAN member countries despite the abolition of tariffs within the bloc.
Analysts blame this on their lack of market information and poor understanding of consumer needs among other factors.
With the formation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) three years ago, members had to reduce over 90 percent of their tariff lines to zero percent, though Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and Myanmar were allowed until 2018 to do so.
Yet Vietnam’s intra-ASEAN exports accounted for only 11 percent last year while this number for other members averaged 24 percent even in 2016, Nguyen Thi Tue Anh, deputy head of the Central Institute of Economic Management (CIEM), said at a recent conference.
Anh said besides Vietnamese enterprises’ lack of market information, they have also failed to adequately differentiate their products from those of competitors within the bloc.
A spokesperson for a business based in southern Soc Trang Province said his company, which produces dried fish and other fisheries products, wants to take its products to the ASEAN market but does not know how.
Saigon Times newspaper quoted him as saying that there are many factors such as package design, marketing and market research, and it does not know where to begin since all are equally important.
Ha Xuan Anh, chairman of HCMC-based textile maker Son Viet, said his company’s products – undergarments - are sold at many modern retail outlets. But for the last 10 years it has sought to sell to Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia, and has been unable to do so.
He explained that though the quality of his company’s products is competitive, Vietnamese brands remain unknown in these markets.
It only sells in markets with less competitive products such as Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar.
Pham Thiet Hoa, director of the HCMC Investment and Trade Promotion Centre (ITPC), also blamed the weaknesses of Vietnamese enterprises for their inability to export, listing lack of product diversification, failure to closely liaise with authorities responsible for foreign affairs, and poor marketing.
ITPC said small companies entering a new market alone would find it very difficult to identify foreign business partners and distribution chains.
Hoa said it is therefore necessary for trade envoys to work with their counterparts in foreign markets to bridge this gap.
Participating in fairs, exhibitions and trade promotion programmes in target markets enables companies to assess the competitiveness of local rivals, he said.
Despite the free trade environment, each country in the bloc has differences in culture, religion and consumer preferences, and businesses need to understand them before venturing into those countries, he said. "Enterprises should also carefully study the technical barriers and legal regulations to avoid losses.”
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